Robo-advisors fill a need. They are serving people with a small amount of money who haven't traditionally been served by advisors. They have also pushed the entire financial industry forward in terms of becoming more technologically efficient and transparent. That being said, PWR is not a robo-advisor and we have no plans to become one.Read More
Blogs Written by PWR Advisors
My spouse and I recently decided to get a divorce. What should we expect with regards to the divorce process and its financial implications? I am particularly concerned about how my retirement plan will be affected.
We outlined the most common ways to obtain a divorce below, including the estimated price for each process. While this is not meant to replace your own due diligence, it should help you get started.
Here are the four most common ways to obtain a divorce.
1) Do-it-yourself (total cost is typically under $2,000)
No outside professionals are involved, therefore, no one is looking out for your best interest except you.
It can be the quickest and cheapest option.
This is not a good option if you are concerned about your spouse hiding assets as there is no subpoena power.
2) Mediation (total cost is typically under $10,000)
You and your spouse hire a mediator - a neutral party.
The mediator's job is to have you and your spouse come to an agreement, not necessarily to ensure an even split.
Again, this is not a good option if you are concerned about hidden assets as the mediator has no subpoena power.
3) Collaborative (total cost is typically at least $25K - $50K)
Both you and your spouse will hire your own attorney to represent your respective interests.
A neutral financial professional, or Certified Divorce Financial Analyst (CDFA®), is also hired to ensure the assets are split as fairly as possible.
If your spouse is withholding information, your lawyer can file paperwork with the courts requiring each party to disclose all assets and pertinent information.
If an agreement is not reached, you will need to go to litigation, and the attorney you selected for the collaborative process is disqualified from representing you during the litigation process.
4) Litigation (total costs vary greatly, but typically at least $25K - often much higher)
Both you and your spouse hire your own attorney to represent your respective interests.
There is a subpoena of records, so it is much harder to hide assets.
The terms of your divorce will be public, unlike the previous 3 approaches.
Why we like the collaborative divorce process.
While every situation is different, we typically recommend clients at least consider the collaborative divorce process because you have an advocate (your lawyer) and a neutral financial person (the CDFA®) to ensure there is an even split of the assets. A CDFA® is a financial planner who has specialized training to properly analyze the financial issues relating to divorce. For example, the CDFA® will review the different account types and how they are taxed differently. When splitting $1M in half, you don't want one person to end up with $500K in a 401k and the other $500K in a brokerage account without understanding that this is a potentially uneven split after taxes. The 401k is fully taxable upon distribution while the brokerage is not, so that difference needs to be factored into the calculations.
Even if you decide the collaborative process isn't for you, we still recommend you consider engaging a CDFA® on an hourly basis to confirm that you completely understand the financial ramifications of the proposed split and settlement.
PWR does not have any CDFA®s on staff, but we can point you in the right direction if you need help.
Where you should start.
Be clear on what you spend each month.
The biggest regret we hear from divorcees is that they did not handle the family finances during their marriage, and therefore feel anxious about making any financial decision. If this is your situation, start by tracking your expenses. It is the first step towards having a clear picture of your finances and it will enable you to evaluate options during the divorce process, such as if you can afford to keep your marital home or other non-income producing assets.
Start building a support network to help you through this time.
Build a team of people who will look out for your best interests. This may include family members, friends, a counselor, an attorney, a tax preparer, and a financial advisor.
Once the divorce is finalized, update your financial plan.
After the divorce, you may need to adjust your savings amounts or living situation based on your change in income and assets. The sooner you make these adjustments, the less painful the changes tend to be. Have a CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER TM help you do an evaluation of your new circumstances.Updating your plan will give you the confidence to make changes and move forward with your life.
I wish you the best,
“Ask Linda” is a monthly personal finance column where the founder of Planning Within Reach, LLC, Linda Rogers, picks one question from her readers and publishes a detailed answer with the hope that it benefits others. If you would like to ask Linda a question, email her or contact her on Twitter.
We're getting married soon and are wondering if there are any particular financial steps we should take once we're "official?"
-Ned and Nancy the Newlyweds
Congrats Ned and Nancy! Getting married is an exciting and hectic time. Here are the financial steps you should be taking once you are "official."
Start by discussing your financial goals now and in the future. Do you want to buy a home, start planning for a baby, or create an emergency fund? Write down your joint and individual goals and when you would like to achieve them. Make sure to decide which goals will be jointly or individually funded.
Review your credit scores together (free from most credit cards) and pull your full reports at annualcreditreport.com. If one of your goals requires you to apply for a loan, it is good to know in advance if either of you needs to work on increasing your credit score.
Decide if you will combine or not combine your money. There are many things to consolidate like; checking and savings accounts, credit cards, and investment accounts (ex. brokerage or trust accounts). Start by creating a simple balance sheet, one page showing all assets and liabilities you own. This is a great way to see what each of you has and to review how your situation looks as a whole.
Managing the household bills usually falls on one individual. Regardless, it is essential to make sure someone takes on the specific responsibility of paying joint bills on time. Creating a joint cash flow, showing all income coming in and expenses going out, will help both spouses to visualize how much each of you spends and saves. You will also want to decide what types of expenses you will discuss together before purchasing. Couples often set a dollar limit, like $500, for a large purchase that should be discussed.
Also to be considered is whether you will have a joint investment strategy and joint savings strategy or if you are going to save and invest for your own separate goals. Do you both have the same risk tolerance when it comes to stocks? Review your current investment accounts, the holdings (funds invested in), and overall asset allocation (% stock and bonds) to see if you are currently invested similarly.
Review your taxes currently and decide how best to manage them after marriage. You may need to change your tax withholdings to "married status" on your W4 at work. Also, determine whether you will file your taxes Married Filing Jointly or Married Filing Separate. You will also need to agree on if you want to prepare your taxes on your own or find a tax preparer.
Once married, your spouse most often becomes dependent on a second income to support the lifestyle you build together. Do you know how much life insurance you currently have? Discuss and decide if it is enough. Also, look into who has a better health care plan at work. Most often you can combine your health coverage into one family plan. You may also want to consolidate your Auto, Home/Renters, Umbrella and Earthquake Insurance under one carrier to save with bundled prices. Make sure each spouse is named on all policies as a covered individual. It is also wise to consider insuring your engagement/wedding rings on a separate rider. Your home or renters insurance may have provisions for covering jewelry, but if you have expensive rings, it can be a good idea to get more coverage in case they are lost or stolen.
Most often Newlyweds don't have estate plans already created. So now is a good time to get them done, especially if you own a house or have kids. Discuss who you want to have your belongings and money if something were to happen to one or both of you. Remember that assets acquired before marriage are separate property, but if commingled with joint funds, it becomes marital property (each state's laws are different, this is related to CA). You will also want to change the beneficiaries of all your retirement accounts and life insurance to your spouse. Lastly, update the titling of your non-retirement assets to both of your names "Joint with Rights of Survivorship" or in the name of your Trust, if created. An estate planning attorney can help you decide the best titling for your assets as well as create your estate plan. Always review these issues with a licensed estate planning attorney, in your state, before taking action.
Once you become "Official," you are now a joint financial team. Set up regularly-scheduled meetings to review your finances and any financial issues you may be having. Commit to communicating actively and openly about any money issues. If you ever get stuck or are too overwhelmed, always get help from a fee-only and fiduciary CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER™ for any tasks that seem beyond your grasp.
Planning Within Reach serves Newlyweds and helps their clients with financial planning and tax preparation. If you are interested in how we help our clients, see our Newlywed Plan Packageand our Tax Preparation Service.
Dear Alicia, I have been following your newsletter telling me that credit freezes will now be free. The other day I was watching television and saw an advertisement for Experian's Credit Lock Services. Should I sign up for that instead of the freeze? It sounds exactly the same to me.
Great question! A credit freeze and a credit lock are two separate services. They are very similar but do have distinct differences.
Instant lock. The main benefit of a lock versus a freeze is that a credit lock is supposedly easier and quicker. Experian says you can unlock “with a touch of a button,” while TransUnion says you can lock or unlock “with a single swipe or click.” Consumers simply have to sign into their online account to lock or unlock. The three big credit agencies also provide a mobile application.
Additional benefits. When you pay for a lock, it usually comes with added benefits like the ones below. * Credit report monitoring * Social Security Number scanning * 3-Bureau credit scores * Adding additional family members * ID Theft Insurance
Monthly Fee. Experian's lock will cost you $19.99 a month(free for the first 30 days). Transunion's credit lock plus is $19.95 a monthand offers the ability to lock your Transunion and Equifax accounts. Equifax is the only one of the big three that still advertises their lock services "are free for life". The only problem is you need to lock all three to be secure. Locking all of the big three would cost you $39.94 a month and would have double coverage of the extra paid services that come with the Experian and Transunion locks.
Not governed, so they sell your data. This is the main pitfall. Because credit locking is not governed, all three locks can have different rules. Make sure to read the terms to know what each company is doing differently. One article brought up that using a lock service gave the companies access to still sell and use your data for marketing, whereas if you have a freeze, it is not allowed.
The marketing tries to convince you it's a better choice. As to why you saw a commercial for the locks, remember anything a for-profit company advertises and spends marketing dollars on, is most likely because it benefits themselves.
Governed by state laws. The best quality of the freeze is that it is a regulated program. Because of this, the freezes will be held to a higher standard and cannot change their terms. This also takes away the companies abilities to use your data for other purposes, such as selling your data to marketers.
100% free in all states. Previously it cost money, depending on the state you lived in, to freeze your credit. After the Equifax breach this year, the government passed a law for freezes to be free in all states as a way to encourage consumers to protect their credit. As of September 21, 2018, you can freeze your credit report for free no matter where you live. The links to the freeze webpages for the three major credit bureaus are below. The big three are not the only bureaus that collect your data. In a distant fourth ranking is Innovis and father fifth is NCTUE (Telecom and Utilities data report). We suggest freezing all five.
Follow these links to set up a freeze for free: Equifax:https://www.equifax.com/personal/credit-report-services/Experian:https://www.experian.com/freeze/center.html#content-01Transunion:https://service.transunion.com/dss/orderStep1_form.pageInnovis:https://www.innovis.com/securityFreeze/indexNCTUE:https://www.exchangeservicecenter.com/Freeze/jsp/SFF_PersonalIDInfo.jsp
Extra protection. When you initially freeze your credit report, you will get a random personal identification number (PIN). To thaw and re-freeze your credit, you must provide the PIN that was assigned to you. Besides the PIN, they will also ask you to provide identifying information to complete the process. These are two extra layers of needed information that the lock doesn't require. With a lock, if your cell phone, ID, and password got into the wrong hands, they could instantly unlock your credit and create havoc. This makes the freeze much more secure. Just don't forget or lose your PIN. Store your PINs in a safe and secure place.
It can take three days. The general rule for a freeze is that you should allow up to three days to thaw or refreeze, but from our experience, unfreezing can be fast and easy. A TransUnion spokesman says it only takes within 15 minutes to implement a thaw by phone or online. This makes the benefit of the instant lock minimal to nonexistent. Once you find out which credit agency the bank or organization is going to pull from, call or use the online system at that agency to request a "thaw" of your credit report.
Speculation of future issues. The devils advocate perspective is, now that the credit agencies are no longer making money on the freezing services, will the services become harder to obtain or will the waiting period become longer? Could they use this as a tactic to get consumers to use their lock services, where they will have control of the service offering and price? As of now, it is unsure as only a few days have passed since the official "free" date. The only drawback noticed by users so far is that the free freeze isn't promoted on the front pages of their websites and in some instances trying to sign-up for a freeze has caused the sites to crash, making you come back at a later time to try again.
Overall: Both freezes and locks meet the goal of preventing a fraudster from opening new credit in your name. For the most regulated product that is now free for everyone, we still recommend sticking with a freeze.
Lastly, remember that placing a freeze or lock does not prevent you from using existing lines of credit you already have open. This also means they don't help to prevent criminals from gaining unauthorized access to your existing accounts. Even if you freeze or lock, still check annualcreditreport.com to review your credit report regularly and take normal precautions, such as alerts and strong passwords.
FIRE stands for financially independent, retire early. The movement continues to grow, with retirees in their 20's through 40's. It has caught on because it is unexpected - we don't picture retirees being so young. Yet it is entirely possible and there is an ever-growing number of blogs and books that prove it. The typical profile of someone who has achieved FIRE:
Graduated from college with very little or no student loan debt
Earned $100,000+ per year with benefits
Saved 50%+ of their gross income by knowing where every dollar is going
Is typically single, married without children, or married with 2 or fewer children (I haven't seen any with more than 2 kids, but with the increasing number of FIREs, I am sure there will be some!)
Is typically burnt out on their current job and would prefer to be done with working instead of finding more rewarding employment
Obviously, this is very hard to achieve if you are earning minimum wage in a job without health insurance, have a mountain of student loan debt, or a large family. Still, there are a lot of positive things to take from the movement. For example, it is good to be reminded that you have choices. You don't have to do what your parents did or your neighbors are doing. Some FIREs live full-time in an RV, stopped eating meat, started cooking at home, etc. Many say they don't feel deprived after these changes - they simply changed a habit and are just as happy with the newer, cheaper way of doing things.
There are also risks. For those without children, what if they end up having kids and doubling their annual expenses? Are they prepared to forego soccer and birthday parties to stay within their annual budget? Did they factor in healthcare costs correctly or purchase long-term care insurance? Are they prepared for the next bear market? Most of the profiles I have read are of people who have retired recently, so we don't know the success of their plans given uncertainties. We can choose to take the best of what we have seen and make it more universally attainable. So even if you can't get FIREd, you can still have a LIFE.
Live a more balanced life today
FIRE assumes a balanced life occurs after the retirement date. Don't wait a decade or more for that goal - life is too short. We created a plan for a client showing he could work part-time until age 40 so he could spend more time with his young children now, while they were home. This is the opposite of FIRE, but that solution made more sense to him. Evaluate what you can do today to achieve a more balanced life, whether it is carving out more family time or finding a different employer.
Imagine you are financially free
The goal of FIRE is to be financially free - so imagine you are retired. What would you do every day considering your family, friends and social network are busy during the week and have limited funds? After traveling the world and tinkering with your hobby, is there something you could do every day without getting bored? Can you make money doing it? We created a plan for a former stay-at-home Mom to go back to nursing school. She didn't need to work, she wanted to. She loves her new career and can see herself doing it for a long time.
Focus on what you can control
A good chunk of our monthly expenses are fixed: housing, insurance, and utilities are a few examples. FIRE user forums are filled with people who downsized or started biking to work. That is great, but for most people obsessing over every dollar leads to fatigue and they lose motivation for tracking expenses completely. Instead, focus on what you can control - the discretionary expenses. You can use our free FLEXCash system or whatever works for you, but the simpler it is, the more likely you are to stick with it.
When people say they want to make a career change, we recommend they speak with someone who is currently doing that job. Learn about their daily activities, their work-life balance, and see if they are earning a livable wage. Similarly, if you want to retire early, talk to someone who actually did it. Were the sacrifices worth it? What would they do differently? If you retire early and end up needing or wanting to return, it may be difficult to re-enter your industry after a prolonged absence.
Keep reading FIRE stories if you enjoy them, but don't define success as being retired. Retirement isn't a race worth winning if you aren't happy in the end. Whether you choose to get FIREd or to get a LIFE, have a money roadmap in place so you know where you're going.
Dear Linda, I recently transitioned from being a salaried employee to a self-employed consultant. I like the flexibility but realize that I have more responsibility with regards to my finances. For example, I was previously enrolled in my employer's 401k plan and now I am not sure how to save for retirement. I am also confused about taxes - my employer withheld money from each paycheck but no taxes are being withheld when clients pay me. And people keep saying I can "write things off", but I am not sure what that means.
This transition can be confusing, but as long as you stay organized you will be fine. Here are some recommendations to help get you started.
Track all income & expenses related to your consulting work.
Open a separate bank account for business activity. Save all invoices and receipts relating to the business transactions. While not necessary, we also recommend using a bookkeeping software, such as Quickbooks Online, to generate invoices, attach receipts to transactions, and run reports that will help you at tax time.
Pay your taxes throughout the year.
You may need to calculate and pay estimated tax payments. Alternatively, you can increase your spouse's withholding if you are married and filing jointly. If you do not withhold or pay enough in estimated taxes you may incur a penalty. Work with a tax preparer if you have any concerns about the calculation or process.
Take advantage of "write-offs" and document your work mileage.
Deductions, or "write off's", are eligible expenses that reduce your taxable income. Examples include advertising costs, professional fees, and insurance premiums. You can also write-off expenses related to your work area at home as long as it is used solely for work. If you drive for work, you can deduct car expenses but a mileage log is required to justify the deduction. It is hard to re-create this at tax time so start keeping track now if it is something you plan to deduct. Leave a notebook in the car that lists the date, mileage and business purpose of each trip including the start and end location. You also need the odometer reading the first and last days of the year that the car is used for business (the tax return will ask for personal vs. work miles). There are phone apps that track mileage including one that links up to Quickbooks, so find what works best for you.
Continue saving for retirement.
Check with your financial planner to determine the best type of retirement account to use. Examples include the SEP IRA, Traditional IRA, Single 401k and Roth IRA. They all have unique characteristics and contribution limits so it will depend on your tax bracket, expected income, and other details relating to your personal situation.
Re-evaluate your personal insurance coverage.
Don't forget to seek out any coverage you may have lost when you transitioned to self-employment. Examples include medical, life and disability insurance.
This information is not a substitute for tax advice. We recommend speaking with your tax advisor if you have any questions relating to your particular situation. PWR offers Tax Preparation and Advisory Services. Learn more.
"Ask Linda" is a monthly personal finance column where the founder of Planning Within Reach, LLC, Linda Rogers, picks one question from her readers and publishes a detailed answer with the hope that it benefits others. If you would like to ask Linda a question, email her or contact her on Twitter.
A Ponzi scheme is a fraudulent investment. The organizers of the scheme do not invest your money in something with intrinsic value. Instead, they pay you a "return" with the contributions of new investors. Ponzi schemes received their name in the 1920's after Charles Ponzi was convicted of running this type of business. Despite all the knowledge we have of previous Ponzi schemes, they continue to defraud people from all walks of life. We are even seeing a new wave of Ponzi schemes involving virtual currencies, such as Bitcoin. Here is a summary of what to look for to protect yourself against Ponzi schemes:
High returns with little or no risk.
All investments, especially those expecting higher returns, involve risk. Be suspicious if someone is selling you an investment that allegedly defies the odds.
Unusually consistent returns.
Investment values go up and down on a daily basis. If your investment generates regular, positive returns, regardless of the overall market, that is a red flag.
Most, but not all, Ponzi schemes involve unlicensed individuals or unregistered firms. Research your Broker or Investment Advisor to confirm they are registered with the SEC or required state regulators.
Ponzi schemes typically involve investments that have not been registered with regulating authorities. By not registering, they can avoid disclosing details about the company's management, products, services, and finances.
"Black box" strategies.
Don't invest in something you don't understand. It is not a good sign if your Advisor grows irritated with your questions or treats you as if you don't understand something that is obvious.
Lack of detailed or complete paperwork.
You should be able to read about an investment in writing. Confirm the paperwork is detailed and complete without spelling and grammatical errors.
Difficulty receiving your money.
As the pool of investors grows, it becomes increasingly difficult to recruit enough new investors and contributions to keep the scheme running. Therefore, the organizers may encourage you to re-invest your return versus withdrawing it. They may also become more aggressive with their sales tactics and encourage you to tell your friends and family about the investment. If you were told the investment was liquid, but you are unable to retrieve your money in a timely matter, or without significant penalties, that is cause for concern.
Unfortunately, if you are caught up in a Ponzi scheme, there is no guarantee that you will get your money back or that the perpetrators will be prosecuted. There are many reasons for this, one being that the statute of limitations on financial crimes is five years. PWR is fighting to get this extended, but the reality is that many people don't realize they have been defrauded until year two or three, leaving insufficient time to complete the necessary legal proceedings. Therefore, the best way to protect yourself is to avoid a Ponzi scheme altogether.
Are you traveling abroad this summer and unsure which of your "plastic" you should bring with you? Travel is already a luxury but it can get even more expensive when each purchase is racking up additional fees. Recently I went to Asia and did some research of my own. Hopefully, this will help you decide which of your cards you should bring, what fees you should know about, and when to use a debit card versus a credit card.
Foreign Transaction Fees. This fee is a surcharge for making a purchase in a foreign currency. Most often the fee is about 3% of the total transaction. Foreign Transaction fees are very common on most regular credit cards, but many travel cards do not have this fee. The Chase Southwest credit card, for example, does not charge a foreign transaction fee.
Good To Know
Check your card benefits. Credit cards often offer nice benefits, such as included travel insurance or lost baggage reimbursement, when you book your travel with your card. Check your card benefits before you buy extra trip insurance when booking flights and hotels, as it might be double coverage you don't need. Easily dispute a wrong transaction. Keep all of your receipts until transactions are posted to the card, as this will give you proof against fraudulent transactions. Always choose the foreign currency. You might be asked if you want to charge in dollars or the foreign currency. Always choose foreign currency because your card issuer will give you a better exchange rate on foreign transactions than the vendor will. If you brought a card that does have a foreign transaction fee, it could be better to charge in USD to avoid the fee depending on the difference in rate.
Check if your provider is accepted where you are going. When going abroad, it is best to stick to Visa or Mastercard, as American Express and Discover are less widely accepted worldwide. Cash is king. In many countries, you will find that most places are cash dependent. Remember credit is not always accepted and you will need to have some cash on hand.
ATM fees. This fee is often set as a dollar amount per withdrawal charge for using a non-affiliated ATM. The Wells Fargo preferred debit card, for example, has an ATM fee of $5 per withdrawal. Foreign Transaction Fees. On top of ATM fees, debit cards also have foreign transaction fees like credit cards. The Wells Fargo preferred debit card, for example, will also hit you with a 3% foreign transaction fee. Withdrawing $500 would cost you $20 - $5 ATM fee and $15 in foreign transaction fees.
Good To Know
Check if your bank is prevalent or has ATM partners abroad. Citibank, for example, partners with the ATMs in 7/11 stores. Anywhere there are 7/11's you can use an ATM with no fees. Many large banks have foreign counterparts. Get cash from ATMs only. Exchange rates are often best at large bank ATMs. The worst rates are at the exchange kiosks, especially the ones in the airports. ATM fee reimbursement. Some banks, mostly ones who are entirely online, with no brick and mortar ATMs, will offer a per-monthly-cycle reimbursement of ATM fees. For example, the Ally debit card gives a $10 per month reimbursement on ATM fees. This is nice, but when abroad and using an ATM multiple times in a short period, the $10 would not be sufficient.
Little to no protection. There is practically no protection against fraudulent money transactions on a debit card. Once money has been withdrawn, you do not have the same ability as you do with a credit card to refute the transaction. If your debit card and pin were stolen, the amount in your checking or savings might not be recovered. Do not use your debit card when you are out. It is best to leave it in the hotel room's safety deposit box or in a safe place. I keep my checking and savings account balance at a minimum when I travel as I find it is easier for me to transfer money when needed than take the risk. Daily ATM withdrawal limit. Debit cards can limit the dollar amount you can withdraw in a 24 hour period. I have seen this range per bank between $300-$2,500. Not every card does, but it’s something you want to know before you leave home so you can plan accordingly.
Set Travel notifications for all cards you are bringing. Notify your cardholders of when and where you are going abroad. This can be done online usually under the travel section of the website, in the bank app or over the phone.
Use your cellular data. Cellular data on your mobile phone (LTE, 3G, etc.) is a private channel and can not be accessed by others (unless allowed by opening your personal hotspot). If you must access bank and credit card information over public wifi, do so on your personal laptop and use a VPN service like encryptme to make sure your internet connection is private. Never use a public computer, especially with public wifi, to access any private information or anything requiring you to enter a username and password.
Download phone apps before you go and use fingerprints to log in. Fingerprint login's, like on the iPhone, are safer. Your fingerprint cannot be copied or stolen over the web, unlike a typed password. By downloading apps before you go and setting up a fingerprint login, you can do most all your web searching abroad without ever having to type in a password.
Make sure your phone and all apps are locked with a code. This ensures that if someone steals your phone, they can't access your personal data.
It is better to use credit cards for purchases and debit cards to get cash. If you have multiple debit and credit cards, make a list of their fees and decide which is best to use and only bring a few cards. Don't forget to keep your research handy and somewhere easy to locate to remind yourself for your next trip!
Sources: https://www.bankrate.com/finance/credit-cards/6-tips-for-traveling-with-credit-cards-1.aspx https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/credit-card-foreign-travel-vacation-tips-5623.php
Dear Linda,My husband and I need life insurance. Should we purchase a Term Life or Whole Life policy to protect our young children? Please explain the difference.
The purpose of life insurance is to protect those who are dependent on your income in the event of your death. A dependent can be a spouse or a young child, but it can also be a sibling or a parent whom you help financially. While there are exceptions, we typically recommend Term Life over Whole Life for the following reasons:
Whole Life is much more expensive.
Both Whole and Term Life premiums are fixed, but Whole Life premiums can be up to 10X more expensive. Given this price difference, many people simply can't afford the amount of coverage they need if they purchase a Whole Life policy.
Life is unpredictable and you need flexibility.
Even if you can afford the higher premium associated with Whole Life today, there is no guarantee you can afford it in the future. Affordability is one reason why a quarter of whole life policies are terminated within the first 3 years and nearly half within the first 10 years. Think about how different your cash flow was 3 years ago. If money gets tight for whatever reason - a job change, a new baby, or a new car payment - you can stop contributing to your Roth IRA, 529 or 401k, but you can't stop paying your insurance premiums without the risk of losing coverage.
The Whole Life investment component, or cash value, tends to be oversold.
Both Whole and Term Life have an insurance component (death benefit), but only Whole Life has an investment component (cash value). Whole Life is a poor investment if you end up canceling the policy in the first few years - the cash value will be eaten up by surrender charges and you shelled out higher premiums than if you purchased Term. You have to hold onto a Whole Life policy for about 16 years to at least break-even.If you die, the cash value goes to the insurance company, not your beneficiaries, unless you take action such as purchase an increased death benefit. And if you borrow from the cash value, the loan amount plus interest is deducted from your death benefit.
Term Life allows you to secure protection for the period you need it.
For example, you can choose 10, 20 or 30 years, which allows you to tailor the coverage to precisely the years you need it. For many, that is until they are retired, the mortgage is paid off, or the children are launched. You can also ladder policies - purchase multiple policies for different terms - since the amount of coverage you need will likely vary over time. Alternatively, Whole Life covers you until you stop paying premiums or reach a certain age, such as 100. Do your dependents really need coverage when you are in your later years? Many find that if they want to leave an inheritance, home sale proceeds and untapped investment accounts are sufficient.
There are situations where a Whole Life policy may make sense, such as if you have an estate tax issue or a special needs child, but the situations are limited. In our practice, Term Life is the best solution for most people because it allows you to obtain the life insurance you need, when you need it, and at a lower price.
“Ask Linda” is a monthly personal finance column where the founder of Planning Within Reach, LLC, Linda Rogers, picks one question from her readers and publishes a detailed answer. If you would like to ask Linda a question, email linda@planningwithinreach. Due to the volume of questions received, she may not be able to answer every question in a timely manner. For advice on your personal situation, schedule an initial call to learn about our services.
To take control of your financial life, you have to be organized, and the most effective tool for this is a budget.
We created the PWR Cash Flow System to help our clients and readers get started with an easy-to-use solution to track their spending.
The excel file has three tabs shown at the bottom. We will walk through how to use the three tabs and what goals, terms, and data are needed for each sheet.
Step 1 - Create a Spending Plan
The goal of step one is to analyze your current income and expenses to create a budget you can stick with. This starts with knowing your actual current spending. If there are areas you can cut or categories you would like to spend more in, adjust them here to create your new monthly budget.
Frequency: In column D you will enter how often an expense occurs. If you only pay for your auto insurance every six months, you would enter 2 in frequency (2 times a year). If you buy groceries every month, you will enter 12. We have entered the most common frequency per category type to get you started - adjust these as necessary. *Note: If you get paid "bi-weekly" or "every two weeks," your frequency for salary income will be 26. If you are paid twice a month, it will be 24.
Income: Enter your monthly income. Include any take-home wages (minus taxes and other required deductions such as insurance), family contributions or other income sources that occur regularly on a monthly basis. Then, enter your periodic income. Periodic income happens occasionally during the year. If you have a side job or if you typically receive a bonus, list those amounts as well.
Expenses: We classify types of expenses as fixed and discretionary. A fixed expense is an expense that is static and recurring. Insurance premiums and rent or mortgage payments are examples. A discretionary expense is something that varies month-to-month or can be reduced if necessary.
To obtain your expenses, review your bank and credit card statements. It is best to have the average of the last three months. The easiest option is to review annual statements from credit cards and banks who will have already categorized your expenditures for the previous year. If you have access to only what you spent last month that is still a good start. Use the numbers you have access to for now and step 3 will give you more accurate information in the future.
Savings: Your savings consist of all income that is not used to pay for your expenses. Examples of savings include retirement savings at work, a brokerage account, an HSA account or a Roth IRA. If you have goals you want to save for, such as a house down payment or a vacation, add a line item for them and enter your annual savings goal into the budget column.
Spending Category Goals: The Goal % is an excellent way to know if you are spending too much on any one cash flow category. Review the goal % column, compared to where your current category %'s are. In your budget, reduce spending in areas that are over the goal % and reallocate to areas that are under the goal %. Most importantly make sure your cash flow has either a surplus or is neutral ($0 at the end of the month). If your cash flow is negative, set guidelines on where you will cut expenses in the budget column.
Budget: Once the annual total is calculated, you can manually create your budget by typing your revised total in the total budget column. If you do not update this column, it will be equal to the annual total column. If you want to spend more or less in a specific category, enter that dollar amount in the column associated. Example: You spend $1,000 a year on gifts, and you want to reduce that to $500 a year, type $500 into the budget column for that expense. You can update this at any time if your budget changes. Note that the budget column is an annual total.
Step 2 - Create a FLEX Plan
The third tab, creating a flex plan, is optional but helpful for people trying to reduce overall lifestyle spending while not feeling deprived. The flex plan lets you strategize ways to create a cash plan for sticking to FLEX expenses.
You will see a monthly and weekly total at the bottom of Step 2. Once the FLEX money is gone, you are done spending in those categories until the following month.
This can be set up in many ways. Traditionally this is a Cash Only method, like the envelope system, and you can take out weekly or monthly cash to pay your expenses. You can also set up a separate checking account that you fund with the weekly or monthly total and use a debit card only. Try it out and determine what works best for you.
Step 3 - Track Your Expenses Monthly
Now that you know what your current spending is and you have a budget set, stay on track by filling out step 3 monthly. Review your expenses to see your successes and pitfalls each month, then adjust your plan as needed.
If you are a PWR client, we can review this spending sheet with you and use it to build your financial plan and annual updates.
If you want help with building your budget and using this spreadsheet, reach out to us at firstname.lastname@example.org